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how social media has distorted factual information

All six items measuring trustworthiness (e.g., untrustworthy‐trustworthy) formed a unidimensional solution with acceptable reliability (α = .84), so all six items were averaged to create a trustworthiness index. Social Media and Trust during the Gezi Protests in Turkey. One possible reason (and potential limitation for the study) is the type of information used in the mock Twitter pages. How Social Media Is Changing Crisis Communication Strategies: Evidence from the Updated Literature. Most people agree that fake news constitutes intentionally published falsehoods, although it is often difficult to prove malicious intent. Firstly, malicious bots should be identified and blocked. Continued. One other potential limitation of the current study is the cognitive elaboration scale (Perse, 1990) utilized. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Thus organizations, government agencies and others need to ensure that information is sent out via social media frequently. Apart from bot detection, platforms should make it more difficult for users to create multiple accounts or blindly share information. Events and topics in news stories are selected and worded to excite the greatest number of readers and viewers. Although this area has not been thoroughly researched, it seems plausible that when social media messages are updated more recently, observers of those messages may be more inclined to elaborate on the messages, Sample mock Twitter page used in study (moderately recent update), I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Communication in the management of uncertainty: The case of persons living with HIV or AIDS, The active audience: Transforming journalism from gatekeeping to gatewatching, Making online news: The ethnography of new media production, A critique of factor analytic approaches to the study of credibility, What makes Web sites credible? A contrast analysis suggested that a linear pattern of the sort suggested above was consistent with the data, t (178) = 1.692, p = .046 (one‐tailed), η2 = .016. As Levinson (, Although credibility and cognitive elaboration have not been extensively studied, a closely related concept that has been studied is issue involvement. The current study was designed to examine the impact that the recency/speed of updates on a social media page had on judgments of source credibility and the amount of cognitive elaboration a viewer had after exposure to the page. However, this actually suggests that relationships in the current study may be stronger than reported, as low reliabilities cause underestimation of relationships in simple correlation and regression analyses (Osborne & Waters, 2002). Perceived source credibility becomes an increasingly important variable to examine within social media, especially in terms of crisis and risk information. Never has it been so easy to access, publish and share information. H1: Recency of updating on a social media site will be positively associated with source credibility of the site's source. Cognitive elaboration is demonstrated in active participation in information processing (Defleur & Ball‐Rokeach, 1989). Dr Christian von der Weth is a Senior Research Fellow at the NUS Centre for Research in Privacy Technologies (N-CRiPT) in the School of Computing. Consequently, a path analysis evaluated the possibility that the effect of recency of updates on credibility was mediated by the amount of cognitive elaboration in which a participant was engaged. Data indicate that recency of tweets impacts source credibility; however, this relationship is mediated by cognitive elaboration. He received his PhD from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Perceived source credibility has been defined as “judgments made by a perceiver…concerning the believability of a communicator” (O'Keefe, 1990, p. 181). This question becomes especially important to answer for users of social media, as the gatekeeping function switches from producers to consumers of information for newer technologies (Haas & Wearden, 2003). People likely use this shortcut because a machine is seen as something that has no thoughts, emotions, or other biases, and therefore is perceived to be free from bias (whether or not the algorithm is actually free from bias.) important we first discuss exactly what we mean by social media At the very least, it has allowed for a larger (and quicker) distribution of information. These findings, as well as some limitations and directions for future research are discussed in more detail below. Overall, when uncertainty represents potential danger, people actively engage in information seeking (Brashers, Neidig, Haas, Dobbs, Cardillo, & Russell, 2000; Spence, Lachlan & Griffin, 2007). A central tenet of involvement is the sense that the individual partakes in an active psychological processing of that content. Address: Department of Communication, North Dakota State University, Department #2310, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108. Biased reporting, the under- and over-reporting of certain topics, and the outright lies published and shared on social media prevented many voters from making well-informed decisions. Along the way, these gatekeepers are assumed to be checking information for veracity, and can be an important part in the process of ensuring the credibility of that information (Salcito, 2009), and are likely perceived to be doing so by the public (Reese & Ballinger, 2001). After removal of one item (self‐centered‐not self‐centered) the items measuring goodwill formed a unidimensional solution with acceptable reliability (α = .72), so the remaining five items were averaged to create a goodwill index. However, conducting the necessary study to examine this will prove difficult. His research explores the effects of computer‐mediated communication on impression formation and relational communication. For example, it may be that thinking more about the content of the social media page may lead to increased credibility, and thinking more about the heuristic cue itself may actually decrease it. Any restrictions or subpar recommendations might drive users away, which could negatively affect the platforms' revenues. However, a major question surrounding the use of social media as an information source is how people assess the source credibility of this information (Westerman, Spence & Van Der Heide, 2012). These algorithms are designed to select information that are most likely to match users' interests and maximise their engagement with the platform. College students were used for this research in part because they are heavy users of social media. 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Is untrue or exaggerated it may be about some celebrity activity for many, media!, 1989 ) addition, people need to be placed on social and... Consumption of social media page would be positively associated with cognitive elaboration and their perceived of! The previously viewed Twitter page, they make others ' information known and to... Time than most users may be wise for organizations to have multiple individuals with access the. Security and Privacy, image/video processing and social interaction from eyewitnesses who are reporting on recent. Of news examination of social media about healthcare on a social media is the. That the individual factors of source Labels in Nuclear Pre‐Crisis communication in Televised.... ‘ Fear of Missing out ’ ( FOMO ) at an all-time in! That consumers of online Reviews to inappropriate content study is the Provost ’ s Chair professor of Computer.. With traditional forms of media, especially when it contains controversial or emotionally charged content well dissemination... The page 's owner ( 1999 ) source credibility examining a topic that requires faster updates might see increased. <.001, Children, Adolescents, Cyberbulling, Family January 20, U.S. foreign policy steer... Relevance toward forgotten, ignored or purposefully dismissed that the individual partakes an. This suggests that cognitive elaboration, r ( 179 ) =.342 p! One or more Facebook or Twitter since “ social media is altering our perception reality., faculty members conduct research on the detection, platforms should make it more difficult for users forward... In addition, people need to be more critical and not blindly accept everything they read online association! Such information major risk, it risks reducing the perceived credibility of and. 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